# Week 9: Walking cycle II
- [Maya 2016 online Help](http://help.autodesk.com/view/MAYAUL/2016/ENU//)
- Art of Maya [pdf link](http://web.cse.ohio-state.edu/~parent/classes/682/MAYA/art_of_maya.pdf): P.75~79 : Rendering
- Completing a walking cycle.
- Improving the quality and expression of your project.
# Batch render
Rendering is where all of the work in setting up models, textures, lights, cameras
and effects comes together into a final sequence of images. The **Batch Renderer (Rendering // Render / Batch Render)** is used to render your animation. It can also be launched from a Command Line terminal.
## Maya Help:
[Batch renders from within Maya](https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/maya/learn-explore/caas/CloudHelp/cloudhelp/2016/ENU/Maya/files/GUID-B9968102-631F-44C4-B497-90A48C88B53A-htm.html)
## Hardware & software rendering
- Hardware rendering (e.g., using **Playblast**): shading, texturing, and lighting use the computer’s graphics hardware to display objects on the screen.
- Software rendering (e.g., using **Batch render**) can be slower than hardware rendering, however the added functionality lets you achieve more sophisticated results. This is because software companies can add functionality by changing algorithms in the code without being restricted by the graphics hardware.
## Frame vs field (interlaced)
- Default in Maya: images as frames. Maya generates one image file for each time frame of an animation.
- When you render images as fields, Maya generates two image files for each time frame of an animation. Maya renders a frame at time “x” by rendering one field at time “t” and one field at time “t+0.5”. These two images are *interlaced* in playback on older NTSC/PAL video and TV hardware in order to achieve smoother images. However these days most motion picture displays do not use interlaced rendering, and default frame-based rendering is preferred.
- Maya help [Frames vs. Fields](https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/maya/learn-explore/caas/mne-help/global/docs/maya2014/en_us/files/Vari-Frames-vs--Fields-htm.html)
## Batch render checklist
- **It is always recommended to preview a small parts of frames first to test before the full rendering.**
- **Save your Maya file before you start the batch render.**
- By default, Maya will render images to the image directory of the current project. The path is shown at the top of the Common tab, as you can see in the example.
- Batch render will follow your settings from the Render settings. Set-up them carefully in the Common setting window and in specific render setting window from the Render Settings window.
- Image size and aspect ratio in the render Settings window.
- Image size: the number of pixels on the horizontal axis by the number of pixels on the vertical axis.
- Resolution: how many pixels fit within an inch. (Computer screen resolution vs. Print resolution)
- Image Aspect Ratio: the ratio of width over height. An image that is 720 by 540 has a ratio of 1.333.
- Pixel Aspect Ratio: the ratio of the actual pixel size. Computer monitors use square pixels: the height of the pixel is 1, and the width of the pixel is 1; thus, the pixel aspect ratio is 1. Standard video images use nonsquare pixels that are 1 pixel high by 1.1 pixels wide, giving them a pixel aspect ratio of 0.9.
- Device Aspect Ratio: the image aspect ratio multiplied by the pixel aspect ratio. For a video image that is 720 by 486 (1.48) using nonsquare pixels (0.9), this would be 1.48 × 0.9 = 1.333.
- Frame padding
## While the batch render is running
### To check the status
- If you look at the lower-right corner of your Maya screen, you should see progress messages in the Command feedback bar.
- You can also open up the Script Editor (at the button right). You should see progress indicators, letting you know which frame is being rendered.
- Image: To preview the most recently rendered image while the batch render is in progress. (Render / **Show Batch Render**) Maya’s image viewer **FCheck** should open up with the most recently rendered frame.
- You can check directly from the current Image folder and you can turn off the Maya program.
### To cancel the render
- You can cancel it from (Render / Cancel Batch Render).
- If you already closed Maya, then you can use the Task manager to cancel the batch render.
## File/Video format
### Image sequence
- If you use **image sequence**, if the render goes wrong at some point, you only have to render out the missing ones. This wouldn’t be possible if rendering straight to a video format such as AVI or MOV. Once you render as a sequence, you can then use an application such as Adobe After Effects or Adobe Premiere Pro to convert your sequences to the video format that you want.
IFF is the default image file format in Maya. The Maya IFF is the most efficient format, in which no data loss occurs. All other file formats are translated from the Maya IFF format. However you can only open this file format with limited applications such as Fcheck.
### Bitmap vs. vector
Maya can render and save an image in both bitmap and vector graphic formats.
- Bitmap formats include TIFF, GIF and BMP. Vector formats include SWF (Adobe Flash), AI (Adobe Illustrator) and SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics).
A bitmap image uses pixels (colored squares) arranged in a grid to describe the image. When you zoom into a bitmap image, you can see the jagged edges of individual pixels. A vector image uses vectors (lines and curves) to describe the image. When you zoom into a vector image, lines and curves remain smooth.
Maya's image/image sequence viewer. It comes with your installation with Maya.
### To launch FCheck
- You can find it in the folder of Autodesk Maya in the Applications (Mac) or Programs (Windows) folder.
- You can make image sequences into a single movie file using Fcheck on Mac OS. However on Windows, you will need to use a different application.
## Infinite cycle
**Cycle animation:** Use Maya's Pre and Post Infinity curve types to determine how to cycle animation before your first and after your last keyframe.
In the Graph Editor, turn on the View/Infinity and check Curves/Post Infinity/Cycle or Cycle with Offset. To turn off you can choose Constant instead of Cycle.
Import Sound (Animation > Animation Basics > [Add audio to your animation](http://help.autodesk.com/view/MAYAUL/2016/ENU//?guid=GUID-9D69DD33-CAEB-4FB9-9559-67984E9ABC2A))
To load an audio file into your scene, do one of the following:
1. Select File / Import. A file browser lets you select the name of the sound file(s) to import.
2. Drag the file(s) from a file browser into one of the Maya modeling views, or onto the Time Slider.
3. You can open the attribute editor of the sound from the time slide.
## Trax Editor (Window / Animation Editors / Trax Editor)
You can import, export, copy, and paste animation clips and arrange them in a window to do nonlinear animation.
This view is analogous to video-editing software; layers of clips can be arranged as well, and the resulting animation will be added together.
### Animation / Visualize
- [Maya help: Visualize menu](http://help.autodesk.com/view/MAYAUL/2016/ENU/?guid=GUID-8363B4BF-6BD6-4385-ABCD-6293DBDB1B2E)
- Create Turntable
- You can add a turntable camera named turntableCamera to your scene. This camera generates a turntable animation.
- [Turntable animation](http://help.autodesk.com/view/MAYAUL/2016/ENU/?guid=GUID-F5171AFE-7B64-44F8-80A8-D7D2253E31D6)
- Create Editable Motion Trail
- Creates a motion trail for the current object.
- Select Visualize > Ghost Selected > to set the Ghost Selected Options.
- Create Animation Snapshot
- Create Animated Sweep
## Adding sun and sky to your scene
- [Maya help: physical sun and sky](https://knowledge.autodesk.com/support/maya/learn-explore/caas/CloudHelp/cloudhelp/2016/ENU/Maya/files/GUID-DBE14B41-02D8-4B23-A525-1FD0FAEB5F82-htm.html)
- If you use Maya 2017, check out the Arnold for Maya user guide about [Physical Sun](https://support.solidangle.com/display/AFMUG/Physical+Sky) from SolidAngle.