# Week 10: Animation Techniques
- [Maya 2016 online Help](http://help.autodesk.com/view/MAYAUL/2016/ENU//)
- Art of Maya [pdf link](http://web.cse.ohio-state.edu/~parent/classes/682/MAYA/art_of_maya.pdf): P.35~38 : Animation techniques
The Animator’s Survival Kit by Richard Williams. The first lesson: concentration!
- [blog 1](https://yckcyouth.wordpress.com/2011/06/01/god-is-pure-concentrationanimation-is-second/)
- [blog 2](http://blog.ishback.com/?p=468)
"There is no particular mystery in animation.., it's really very simple, and
like anything that is simple, it is about the hardest thing in the world to
do." Bill Tytla at the Walt Disney Studio, June 28, 1937. 
# Animation in Maya
Art of Maya p. 35~38.
>When 3D artists animate, they paint with motion instead of color. As an object
moves, rotates or changes shape over time, it is being animated.
>There are a number of tools for creating motion in Maya. In some
cases, 3D artists will animate all the parts of an object separately. In other cases,
they use higher level controls to help streamline their workflow.
In Maya, there are a number of ways to animate an object.
Using a bouncing ball as a common example, it is possible to explore
the different animation techniques available. In a real project,
you will most often combine several of these techniques to achieve the
## Setting Keys
Setting keys (or keyframing) is the most fundamental technique for animating on a computer. This technique involves recording attribute values as keys for one or more objects at particular points in time. As you set multiple keys, you can play back the scene to see your object animated.
Setting keys gives you a great deal of control over timing. When you animate using keys, you generate animation curves that plot the key values against time. These curves are great tools for analyzing and editing the motion of an object. Other animation techniques are usually combined with some keyframing. Most animation you do in Maya will involve some form of setting keys.
Terms: Keying Attributes, Secondary Motion, Hierarchical Animation, Animation Curves
## Motion Path Animation
(Motion) Path animation involves attaching the object to a curve where points on the path are used to determine where the object will be at particular points in time. It is easy to understand the way an object moves around in 3D space through a path, since its curve clearly depicts where the object is going.
## Set Driven Key
Set Driven Key allows you to control or "drive," the value of one attribute with another attribute. The
relationship between the two attributes is defined by an animation curve. The driving attribute can be used to drive multiple other attributes. For example, the rotation of an elbow joint could drive a bulging bicep muscle and the wrinkling of a sleeve.
Custom attributes can be added to a control node, then connected to other attributes in the scene using Set Driven Key. This creates centralized controls.
## Non-linear Animation
Non-linear animation uses animation clips that contain keyframed motion. These clips can be cycled and blended with other clips in the Maya Trax Editor. For a bouncing ball, a single bounce clip could be cycled, then blended with a clip of the ball rolling. These clips can be moved, scaled, cycled and blended. You can also add and subtract clips from the Trax Editor to quickly explore different animation options.
### Trax editor
Apart from being the best place to import and manipulate audio, the trax editor was built to load animation “clips” onto character sets. This can be very fun and intuitive.
Manipulating clips is kind of like “mixing” animation. You can create a library of clips and mix and match the animation to create entire performances, or, perhaps more usually, multiple permutations of background animation.
## Expressions & MEL
Another way of animating object attributes is through expressions. Expressions can be mathematical equations, conditional statements or MEL commands that define the value of a given attribute. Expressions are evaluated on every frame. You can animate using an expression when you have a mathematical relationship that you want to achieve. In the case below, the absolute value of a sine wave creates the bounce of the ball.
## Dynamic Simulation
To animate a ball that is bouncing off a series of objects or against a non-flat terrain, a dynamics simulation is required for the most realistic results. The ball can be turned into a rigid body that is propelled forward using dynamic attributes. Forces such as gravity or wind can then be applied to the ball to bring it to the ground. Objects in the scene can also be turned into rigid bodies so the ball will collide with them. If they are passive, they will not be affected by the collision. If they are Active Rigid Bodies, they will move as the ball hits them. In the end, the simulation can be baked to turn the motion into keys.
## Motion Capture
mocapdata.com provides 933 premium and 4671 free motion datasets and is advertised as 'the world biggest state of the art motion capture library on the earth.'
TurboSquid provides 3D assets including 3D models. You can find free 3D models as well as free motion capture FBX data that can be imported to Maya.
## Deformation, Blend Shape
Blend Shapes are essentially copies of your main character geometry with specific, focused changes to a small part of the geometry. e.g., facial expressions.
- [Non-linear deformer](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tI2zSsKGmQM)
- [Lattice Deformer](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jviQSB6quJY)
- [Creating and Animating Facial Blendshapes by Andrew Silke](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YpBsWuPvbFo)
An animatic is a film industry term referring to a rough animation designed to help plan a shot, like a moving storyboard. Typically, models in an animatic are very low resolution and untextured with simple lighting. Animatics are used to plan both computer-generated (CG) and live-action shots. Camera work, timing, and the composition of elements within the frame are the most important aspects of an animatic.
- ['The Grand Budapest Hotel' Storyboard Animatics](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxqp2msGOhQ)