# Maya Texturing
- Understanding the processes of UV texturing in Maya.
- Understanding Maya's 3D Paint Tool along with Photoshop.
Although the Hypershade window provides numerous ways to prepare materials, several important techniques outside this window are important to know. Preparing proper **UVs** for any model is a critical step in the texturing process. Using the **3D Paint tool** is an efficient way to prepare custom bitmaps. Maya's support for the **Photoshop PSD format** allows the use of layers. At the same time, the proper use of bump and displacement maps can add realism to a render.
## UV mapping
>UV stands for the horizontal (U) and vertical (V) coordinates of the 2D coordinate map space that is applied to a 3D object.
UVs are 2D representations of a 3D object. There can be a problem with wrapping a 2D image (a texture) around a 3D object. UV mapping helps with this problem: UVs are directly related to vertices on a polygon and NURBS, but the UVs cannot be manipulated in 3D space; they are tied to a 2D coordinate plane and edited in a **UV editor**.
> UVs are like a “where” — they are a coordinate system across the surface of polygons (think latitude and longitude across a globe).
> Understanding what UVs are and being able to manipulate them is incredibly powerful and allows any image to define the surface of a 3D form. ***Unfortunately, this power to manipulate UV is not a trivial task and can be very counterintuitive.***
The application of a texture in the UV space related to its effect in 3D. CC BY-SA 3.0 [wikipedia](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UV_mapping)
A representation of the UV mapping of a cube. The flattened cube net may then be textured to texture the cube. CC BY-SA 3.0 [wikipedia](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UV_mapping)
- [The Basics Of UV Mapping by The Guerrilla CG Project](https://vimeo.com/5017993)
- [“On the Run” Creative Process - Part One by the Rusted Pixel](https://vimeo.com/120644464)
## Create UVs for polygon surfaces (Modeling // UV /)
### Using different mapping methods and check the UV Texture Editor.
### Example of a 3D human model with the UV map.
(a) Planar, (b) cylindrical, (c) spherical, and (d) automatic mapping of a human model.
## UV texture map
### A human head model with a uniform UV map and a nonuniform UV map.
### Examples of UV texture mapping
### The bumps and folds of a sculpture are roughed in with the 3D Paint tool
## UV Texture editor
3D software uses u- and v-coordinates to determine how textures should be applied to 3D objects. **UV mapping** refers to the process of determining these coordinates for polygon objects. **UV layout** is a term that refers to the 2D configuration of the UVs on a surface. In the **UV Texture Editor**, u-coordinates are plotted along the horizontal axis, and v-coordinates are plotted along the vertical axis. **UV maps** act as a guide for the placement of images.
**NURBS surfaces have implicit UVs; this means that the coordinates are built into the parameterization of the surface. UV texture coordinates do not have to be created for NURBS surfaces; only polygon and subdivision surfaces require mapped UVs.**
## Relavant references and tutorials:
[Maya 2018 online Help](http://help.autodesk.com/view/MAYAUL/2018/ENU//)
- Art of Maya [pdf link](http://web.cse.ohio-state.edu/~parent/classes/682/MAYA/art_of_maya.pdf)
- [Maya 2018 UV editor overview](http://help.autodesk.com/view/MAYAUL/2018/ENU/?guid=GUID-73BF7546-3BF2-44F3-9192-15A024CEC173)
- [WHAT’S NEW WITH MAYA’S UV EDITING TOOLS by Steven Roselle, 13:27](http://lesterbanks.com/2017/08/watch-whats-new-mayas-uv-editing-tools/)
- [Maya Monday: The New UV Editor](https://www.toolfarm.com/blog/entry/maya_monday_the_new_uv_editor)
- [Layout UV shells](http://help.autodesk.com/view/MAYAUL/2018/ENU/?guid=GUID-21CFF911-9C21-4019-B676-766ACA3BC889)
- [THE NEW UV EDITOR IN MAYA 2017 UPDATE 3](http://scythgames.com/blog/welcome-new-uv-editor-maya-2017-update-3-9/)
- [UV mapping tips](http://help.autodesk.com/view/MAYAUL/2018/ENU/?guid=GUID-1CEF8A5B-1051-40F1-ACFE-F29AD066F56F)
## Maya bonus tool
- Bonus Tools 2018 is a free collection of useful Maya scripts and plug-ins. After installing Bonus Tools, an additional pull-down menu will be added to the end of the main Maya menu. This new menu provides easy access to a variety of tools and utilities for daily use.
You can download it from Help / Maya Resources and Tools / Download Bonus Tools
The Blue Umbrella: a 2013 Pixar computer-animated short film that is directed by Saschka Unseld of Pixar's technical department. The short featured new techniques in photorealistic lighting, shading, and compositing.
- [saschka, Dreamer & director of pixar's the blue umbrella, Vimeo channel](https://vimeo.com/user3018211)
- Portraits Of The 21st Century: The Most Photorealistic 3D Renderings Of Human Beings [link](http://www.cgtrader.com/blog/portraits-of-the-21st-century-the-most-photorealistic-3d-renderings-of-human-beings)
- [Texture showreel: Claudio Gasparollo](https://vimeo.com/claudiogasparollo)
- [R&D Showreel: Jose Arcadio Buendia](https://vimeo.com/17501406)
- [Texture/LookDev/Generalist Artist, Valentina Rosselli](https://vimeo.com/117526785)
- [Dan Roarty - Show reel](http://www.danroarty.com/show-reel)
## To do list
- Team formation & mid-term announcement
- Lab practice A: Creating UVs
- Lab practice B: Texturing a box; dice, cardboard box
- Lab practice C: 3D painting texture and using PSD network
- Lab practice D: 3D Cut and Sew UV Tool
- Lab practice E (optional): Eye texturing
## Example textures
- You can download textures from [here.](obj/textures.zip)
## Practice A: Creating & Selecting UVs
- Planar UV mapping
- Cylindrical UV mapping
- Spherical UV mapping
- Camera UV mapping
- Automatic UV mapping
### Maya help
- [UV projection](http://help.autodesk.com/view/MAYAUL/2018/ENU//index.html?guid=GUID-B7E73748-5F8E-4E66-BE88-DF3C2A3DF438)
- [Displaying and Selecting UVs](http://help.autodesk.com/view/MAYAUL/2018/ENU//index.html?guid=GUID-764C4EB5-7050-477B-B866-76FE86758E7D)
## Practice B: Texturing a dice
- To manipulate UV texture coordinate in the UV texture editor to apply texture properly.
- To edit a texture in Photoshop.
- How to:
- Create a box and apply a material.
- From the color in the attribute editor of the material, open it and click the file node. And from the file node, you can link to the chosen texture.
- Push the hotkey '6' from the keyboard to see the texture in the work space.
- Choose UV editing from under Workspace menu.
- You can navigate this window in the same way as the viewport, and choose UVs or Shells, and transform them. (With the right button of your mouse, you can choose the object's UV components)
- Let's select UV shells (RMB) and apply Cut from UV Toolkit. Now you can move the individual shell.
- Now you can move, sew, and align UVs for the texture mapping.
- You can save a UV texture (UV Texture Editor // Image / UV Snapshot or Create PSD Network). Then you can open the texture in Photoshop and edit it.
## Practice C: 3D painting texture
**Goal:** creating 3D painted textures.
**Command location:** Rendering // Texturing / 3D Paint Tool
- Let's create 'color' and 'bump' textures using a brush and/or paint effect.
### Using PSD network
1. Save UV texture (UV Editor // Image / UV Snapshot... )
2. Create PSD Nexwork... (UV Editor // Image / Create PSD Network...) and Update PSD Network...
## Practice D: 3D Cut and Sew UV tool
**Goal:** controlling UVs in the viewport for more efficiency.
**Command location:** Modeling // UV / 3D Cut and Sew UV Tool
The 3D Cut and Sew UV Tool allows you to create or stitch seams on UV shells right in the viewport, instead of through the UV Editor. For more information on cutting and sewing edges, see [Separate and attach UVs](http://help.autodesk.com/view/MAYAUL/2018/ENU/?guid=GUID-578193DB-7EE7-4C60-A26F-9187DF8614A3).
### Related tutorial for practice D:
- [WORKING WITH THE NEW 3D CUT AND SEW UV TOOL IN MAYA 2018 by Malcom Andrieshyn](http://lesterbanks.com/2017/09/working-new-3d-cut-sew-uv-tool-maya-2018/)
## Lab practice E (optional): Eye texturing
### Using textures and a projection utility
- How to:
- Create a NURBS sphere add isoparms (using Insert isoparms) to the iris area.
- Duplicate it and make a second one a little bit bigger. Put it into a layer.
- Shape the first one using Hulls to make the inner curve tino a iris.
- For a pupil, choose the pupil size isoparm and detach it.
- Delete the detached patch and create another sphere and make it small to fit to the pupil area and assign surface shader.
- Assign a material from the color attribute, call the texture window and assign a projection utility.
- From the projection node, call the texture image from the image node and then do Interactive Placement + Fit to BBox.
- You will see the projection placement node from the work space which you can control.
- Now you can change the material attributes to make right for you.
- Slight differences in the textures can change the result a lot. Therefore, please go ahead to work on textures in Photoshop.
- [High-Quality Capture of Eyes](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v3X5OmHXa4c)
- [Realistic poligon eye modeling](http://www.3dtotal.com/tutorial/948-realistic-eye-modeling-for-3d-characters-maya-by-krishnamurti-martins-costa-pupil-iris-texture)
- [Procedural Eye](http://toddpilger.blogspot.ca/2012/10/procedural-eye.html)
- [Pinterest: realistic eye](https://www.pinterest.com/pin/472244710905510215/)
- Please complete your UV mapping practices and upload your screenshots to Canvas.
- Two images out of four options:
- One dice or box UV texturing result (submit one final rendering, one UV texturing screenshot).
- One 3D paint texturing image (submit one final rendering).
- One UV unwrapping image of an organic object such as a human or an animal. You can use a sculpting base mesh model from the Content Browser. Create a new UV set to work on your **new** UV unwrapping. (Submit a screenshot of UV unwrapping screenshot.)
- More complex eye texturing (submit one or two rendering image(s)).
# Action items
- Web tutorial: [Lynda.com: Maya 2018 essential training by George Maestri.](https://www.lynda.com/Maya-tutorials/Apply-multiple-materials-objects/604210/644608-4.html)
- Apply Materials and Textures.